What’s it all about, Bergland?

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The wine regions of Austria have always seemed a bit confusing to me. Actually, that’s an understatement—but the issue is with me, not with Austria. I just need to focus. So here goes—I’m diving straight into the area that has (in the past) confused me the most, and am determined to develop a crystal-clear understanding of Bergland.

For starters: Austria has four main Weinbaugebiete (we’d call them “quality wine regions”). They are: Burgenland, Niederösterreich (Lower Austria, referring to being down-river on the Danube from the region they call “Upper Austria), Wien (Vienna), and Steiermark (Styria). These four regions are also states (or, in the case of Vienna, a capital city that serves as its own state, much like Washington DC here in the US) and can therefore serve as a PDO designation of origin—and—these regions may also contain more specific subregions (which may or may not be a Districtus Austriae Controllatus [DAC]). Did someone say confusing???

What’s Bergland got to do with it: Austria also has three large Weinbaugregionen (Landwein regions), or regions that are approved for PGI (protected geographical indication) wine. Two of these—Weinland Österreich and Steierland—neatly overlap with the PDO regions and are simple enough. However…there’s Bergland (not to be confused with Burgenland)…with no subregions and no overlap with the Quality Wine Regions of Austria.

If you check out my handy-dandy map, you’ll see that all of Bergland lies in the western section of the country which has typically been thought of as too cold, too mountainous, and too alpine for high-quality wine production (but a fantastic place for schnapps and beer—keep in mind that a good portion of the area is just south of Germany’s Bavaria). However, as we’ll see, there are some nooks and crannies of this rugged area that make for decent vineyard land, and wine is produced here.

Here is a closer look at the Bergland PGI, divided up by the five federal states that comprise the region:

Hochosterwitz Castle

Kärnten (Carinthia): Carinthia is the southernmost state of Austria, is entirely situated within the Eastern Alps, and is home to the eastern edge of the Grossglockner—the highest peak in the country. Viticulture in this area centers around the area near Hochosterwitz Castle as well as the valleys of the Lavant and Drava Rivers. The area currently has 170 hectares (421 acres) of vines, and the wines of the region have proven popular with tourists and locals alike, showing “promising potential.”

Oberösterreich (Upper Austria): It makes sense that the region upriver on the Danube would be a fine region for viticulture; after all, after the Danube crosses the political boundary separating “Upper” from “Lower” Austria, it flows through the famous wine regions of Wachau, Kremstal, Traisental, and Vienna. The area of Upper Austria did (historically) have quite a dynamic wine industry, and after several decades of decline, is back in business. Upper Austria currently has about 112 acres (45 ha) of vines, both in the Danube River Valley and the hilly regions closer to the center of the state.

Salzburg, with Mönchsberg Mountain in the background

Salzburg: Apparently there is more to Salzburg than the Sound of Music. However, if you are familiar with the classic musical (movie version), you no doubt noticed the soaring Alps surrounding the city, and indeed, the city of Salzburg is known for its five mountains, one of which—Mönchsberg—is home to vineyard overlooking the city. While apparently a new phenomenon, it seems there are now several vineyards in the state of Salzburg (totaling about 18 acres [7 ha]), and even a few within the city limits. This version of what they call “Mönchsberg Sparkling Wine” looks fascinating!

Voralberg: Voralberg is the westernmost state of Austria, bordering Switzerland, Germany, and the tiny country of Lichtenstein. Voralberg touches on Lake Bodensee and the Rhine River, and is close to a few outlying portions of the Württemberg and Baden wine regions of Germany. As such, it makes sense that there was once a thriving wine industry here; by some accounts the area had over 500 hectares planted to vines once upon a time. However, phylloxera reared its ugly head, and the industry has been slow to bounce back. Currently, Voralberg has 25 acres (10 ha) of vines, including one located in the town of Röthis, just a few miles east of where the Rhine River forms the border between Austria and Switzerland.

Photo of Zirl by Svíčková via Wikimedia Commons

Tirol (Tyrol): If you are familiar with Italy’s South Tyrol (Südtirol, aka Alto Adige) wine region, you may have wondered if there is a “North Tyrol.” Well, there is—except that it is known simply as “Tyrol” (Tirol)—and it is just north of Italy, in Austria. The state of Tyrol is discontinuous, divided by a 4.3-mile- (7 km-) wide strip; the larger area, straddling the area between Italy’s South Tyrol and Germany’s Bavaria, is known as North Tyrol; the smaller portion is East Tyrol. There is some historic connection to wine production here, including a (no longer cultivated) 14th-century vineyard located in Zirl—the products of which were greatly appreciated by Emperor Maximilian I (1459-1519). Modern winemaking is springing to life as well, and Tyrol currently has 12 acres (5 ha) of vines and over two dozen wineries; check out the website of the Weinbau Verband Tiroler here.

Grapes and wines produced in Bergland are similar in variety and style to the overarching wines of Austria. White grapes prevail—particularly Grüner Veltliner, Riesling, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, and Müeller-Thurgau. The main red grapes are Zweigelt and Blauer Burgunder (Pinot Noir).

References/for more information:

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas… missjane@prodigy.net

Literary Libations

It’s a good time of year for two of my favorite things: having a high-quality cocktail and taking the time to relax and read a good book. So this year I’d thought I’d explore the area where literature and libations connect, and share a few distilled spirits named in honor of some of my favorite authors.

Robert Burns Single Malt Scotch Whisky: Named for Scotland’s most famous poet, the Robert Burns Single Malt Scotch Whisky is produced by the Isle of Arran Distillery.  The distillery’s website describes the whisky’s appearance as resembling “Ayrshire sunshine,” a reference to Ayrshire, the poet’s place of birth, which is just across the Firth of Clyde (a 14–mile wide inlet of the Atlantic Ocean) from the island of Arran.

This delightful whisky—redolent of apples, vanilla, apricot, honeysuckle, and smoke—is good just about any time you might fancy a dram; however, there is no excuse not to have a glass or two on Burns Night. Burns Night (also known as Robbie Burns Day) is an annual celebration of the poet’s January 25th birthday. The holiday is often marked with a Burns dinner featuring Scotch whisky, poetry recitations, bagpipers, and a main dish of haggis (as noted in Burns’ famous poem, “Address to a Haggis”).

Here is a quote on the joys of whisky from Robert Burns (“John Barkeycorn” is a term for whisky):

  • “Inspiring bold John Barleycorn! What dangers thou canst make us scorn! Wi’ tippeny [tuppenny ale], we fear nae evil; Wi’ usquabae [whisky], we’ll face the devil!”—Robert Burns (1759–1796), Tam o’ Shanter

Dorothy Parker Gin: Dorothy Parker gin is produced by Brooklyn’s New York Distilling Company. Dorothy Parker Gin is named for New York City’s witty, wise-cracking poet, critic, and short-story author, best-known as a founding member of the Algonquin Round Table. Dorothy reveled in her martinis and as such, she seems to be the perfect character to be honored on the label of a bottle of gin.

According to their website, Dorothy Parker American Gin is flavored with “a blend of traditional and contemporary botanicals including juniper and elderberries, citrus, cinnamon, and hibiscus.” They’ve even created a cocktail known as “The Acerbic Mrs. Parker” that combines the gin with fresh lemon juice, hibiscus syrup, and orange liqueur.

Here is the quote that makes Dorothy Parker (1893–1967) the ideal candidate for having a gin named after her:

  • “I like to have a martini, two at the very most. After three I’m under the table, after four I’m under my host.” ―Dorothy Parker, The Collected Dorothy Parker

Photo of James Joyce (Public Domain)

 James Joyce No. 15 Single Malt Irish Whiskey: James Joyce No. 15 Single Malt Irish Whiskey, named after Ireland’s famed novelist, short story write, and poet—best known for Ulysses, Finnegans Wake, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and the short story collection Dubliners—is a bit of a unicorn bottle. It’s a private label, limited edition (only 15 barrels) Irish whiskey produced by Bushmills Distillery and bottled in 2016 for the James Joyce House in Dublin. (It was also priced at 250 Euros, at least on the internet). The name of the whiskey honors the address—No. 15 Usher’s Island—of the famous “House of the Dead,” featured in Dubliners.

I haven’t had the opportunity to taste this rare spirit, however, according to the website of the L. Mulligan Whisky Shop, it has flavors of fruit (citrus, grapefruit, green apple), spice (cinnamon), and chocolate, with a bit of tannin and wood on the finish.

Here’s a quote from James Joyce that will have any whiskey aficionado reaching for a glass:

  • “The light music of whisky falling into glasses made an agreeable interlude.” ― James Joyce (1882–1941), Dubliners

Do you have any favorite spirits named after an author?

References/for more information:

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas… missjane@prodigy.net

Five Fast Facts about the Yakima Valley AVA

Photo by Agne27 via Wikimedia Commons

Here’s five fast facts about the beautiful, historic, and tourist-friendly Yakima Valley AVA. Time to plan a trip!

#1: The Yakima Valley was the first AVA in Washington State: In April of 1983, the Yakima Valley AVA was the first AVA established within Washington State (the larger Columbia Valley AVA was established about a year-and-a-half later, in November of 1984). The Yakima Valley area is home to some of the oldest vineyards in Washington State, with winemaking in the area going back as far as 1869. The first vines in the area were planted by Charles Schanno, a winemaker from the French region of Alsace-Lorraine. Later, in the early 1900s, an attorney from Tacoma named William Bridgeman planted vineyards and pioneered irrigation in the area. Following Prohibition, Bridgeman opened Upland Winery and—along with winemaker Erich Steenborg—began producing varietally-labeled wines in the Yakima Valley, including the state’s first dry Riesling.

#2: The Yakima Valley has three sub-AVAs (with one more [maybe] on the way): The Yakima Valley AVA stretches for over 60 miles from the town of Union Gap (just south of the city of Yakima) and along the valley of the Yakima River until just before the point where the Yakima flows into the Columbia River. The sub-appellations of the Yakima Valley are:

  • Red Mountain: the smallest AVA in the state, located on the south/southeast slope of Red Mountain facing the Yakima River, and a powerhouse area for Cabernet Sauvignon.
  • Snipes Mountain: the second-smallest AVA in the state, located in the southeast corner of the Yakima Valley atop a ridge including the peaks of Snipes Mountain and Harrison Hill. This is the area where William Bridgeman’s original winery, Upland Winery was located; the original property (now owned by the Newhouse family) is a large working farm—Upland Estates—complete with an area known as Upland Vineyards.
  • Rattlesnake Hills:  The Rattlesnake Hills AVA is located to the north of the Yakima River, along an expanse of hills running from east-to-west. The vineyards here are found at elevations ranging from 850 feet and rising as high as 3,085 feet.
  • Candy Mountain—the one on-the-way: In January of 2017, the TTB accepted an application for the proposed Candy Mountain AVA, to be located in the far-eastern part of the Yakima Valley, to the east of Red Mountain. If accepted, Candy Mountain will be the smallest AVA in Washington State.

Field of hops

#3: The Yakima Valley is known for Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Merlot, and…hops: The leading grape varieties of the Yakima Valley (listed in order) include Chardonnay (at 3,180 acres), Merlot (at 2,090 acres), Cabernet Sauvignon (at 1,350 acres), Riesling (at 920 acres), and Syrah (at 650 acres). In addition to grapes and wine, the Yakima Valley is a major producer of apples, cherries, pears, and hops. The Yakima Valley contains more than 75% of the total hop acreage in the country and accounts for 77% of all hop production in the US.

#4: There’s a movie about it: It’s not quite Sideways, and I’m not sure the powers-that-be in Yakima Valley want to go shouting it from the rooftops, but there is a funny, semi-wine related and very charming movie set in the town of Prosser, smack in the middle of the Yakima Valley. It’s called “Cement Suitcase” and stars Dwayne Bartholomew as Franklin Roew. Franklin is a semi-slick wine salesman at a local tasting room, smack in the middle of a quarter-life crisis complete with a cheating girlfriend and a goofball roommate (as well as some unresolved grief about the recent death of his mother). It’s a great film to watch on the plane en route to your winetasting tour of the Yakima Valley. Cement Suitcase was directed by J. Rick Castañeda as his first feature film.

Photo of the Stone Chapel at Red Willow Vineyard by Agne27 via Wikimedia Commons

#5: The Yakima Valley has its own hilltop stone chapel: The historic and renowned Red Willow Vineyard, located in the far western part of the Yakima Valley AVA, has its own hilltop chapel. Built from stones collected during the original planting of the vineyards, the chapel is built at the apex of the Chapel Block of the Red Willow Vineyard at a height of about 1,250 feet.

References/for more information:

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas… missjane@prodigy.net

Rotling Revival

 

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This week I happened upon a few examples of Rotling—served at the home of a friend fresh off a Paris-to-Switzerland river cruise. I don’t know much about Rotling, besides the fact that it is type of German rosé, and I can’t remember the last time I tasted (or even thought about) Rotling. It is obviously time for a Rotling revival!

The basics: according to the Wines of Germany website, Rotling is a German rosé made by blending red and white grapes (or red and white must) together prior to fermentation. The “prior to fermentation” detail is very important, as this is NOT a pink wine made by blending together red and white wine (that’s frowned upon in most European PDO wines). Rotling must be pale pink to light red in color, but it may be produced in various levels of sweetness, varying levels of spritz (from still to Perlwein or Sekt), and from a range of grape varieties.

Throughout the course of a very long morning, I googled down many a wine-website-rabbit hole trying to find Rotling for sale in the US. I wasn’t successful in finding a bottle available in Texas, however, I did learn that Rotling is widely enjoyed throughout Germany and Central Europe, often served as a “wine by the glass or carafe” or packaged as a bulk wine. There is also a good deal of bottled Rotling available in Europe at a good, quaffable price—sometimes as low as five euros for a liter bottle.

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The details: There are a few specifically-defined types of Rotling:

  • Schillerwein is a Rotling produced in the Württemberg wine region; it must be at least Qualitätswein-level quality. According to Dr. Christian Schiller, writing on the i-winereview.com blog, the wine’s name is derived from the verb “schillern,” meaning “to scintillate”—a reference to the wine’s brilliant (scintillating) color.
  • Badisch Rotgold is a Rotling produced in the Baden wine region; it also must be at least Qualitätswein-level quality. Badisch Rotgold must be produced using Grauburgunder (Pinot Gris) and Spätburgunder (Pinot Noir), with Grauburgunder as the majority grape, and the grape varieties must be declared on the label.
  • Schieler is a Rotling from the Sachsen wine region; it too must be at least Qualitätswein-level quality.

The wines: here is a bit of information about the wines I was lucky enough to sample:

  • Castel-Castell Rotling Trocken 2016: This wine was a beautiful, bright-but-light watermelon hue. This wine is produced in the Franken wine region from a blend of Müller-Thurgau and Acolon (a Blaufränkisch X Dornfelder cross) grapes. This is a crisp, fruity, delightful wine with aromas and flavors of ripe berries (raspberries, strawberries), a whiff of baking spice and a floral note.
  • Weingut Heinrich Basten Rotling Feinherb 2016: This wine was slightly lighter in color, but still had a delightful “light-reddish” color and crystal-clear-clarity. Nicely crisp but slightly sweet, this wine had aromas and flavors of raspberry, cherry, and tangerine, with a slight hint of nutmeg and (yum) marshmallow. This wine is a blend of Müller Thurgau und Spätburgunder (Pinot Noir).

In Germany, from what my friend tells me, they have no problem drinking Rotling in December—or any other time of year…so now is as good a time as any to reach for a Rotling!

References/for more information:

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas… missjane@prodigy.net

Zip and Zest: Five Fast Facts about Tartaric Acid (and Wine)

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Is it weird that tartaric acid has been on my mind a lot lately? I suppose dreams of tartaric acid are not so unusual for those inclined to the study of wine, and a little bit of a treatise on tartaric might be just the ticket to soothe my soul. So here goes, five fast facts about tartaric acid!

#1: When it comes to tartaric acid, grapes rule: Tartaric acid is one of the main natural acids found in grapes and —interestingly enough—grapes have a higher concentration of tartaric acid than any other fruit or vegetable. Besides grapes, measurable quantities of tartaric acid can be found in avocadoes, bananas, cherries, and grapefruit. However…for the record, most fruits and vegetables—including blackberries, blueberries, apples, apricots, peaches, pears, pineapples, plums, lemons, limes, oranges, and tomatoes—are high in malic acid and citric acid, but contain very little (if any) tartaric acid.

#2: Tartaric acid is tongue-tingling and truly tart: Tartaric acid is typically the strongest acid in both grapes and wine, as measured by pH and volume. Tartaric acid typically accounts for one-half to two-thirds of the acid content of ripe grapes. As such, tartaric acid is one of the most important fixed (non-volatile) acids in wine, along with malic acid.

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#3: Tartaric acid is strong and stable, part one: Tartaric acid is often used as an additive in winemaking (for good reason): In addition to the obvious impact on taste and flavor, proper levels of tartaric acid are important to the microbial stability of a wine. Tartaric acid resists decomposition and microbial attack, and is therefore often used as an additive  when acidification is needed. Malic acid, on the other hand, is easily broken down by malolactic fermentation or other processes. For these reasons and more, tartaric acid is the substance most often used when acidification is needed in the winemaking process.

#4: Tartaric acid is strong and stable, part two: Tartaric acid typically is contained in wine grapes at a concentration between 2.5 to 5 g/L at harvest, and it remains relatively stable throughout the ripening process. Conversely, wine grapes often contain more than 20 g/L of malic acid prior to veraison—however, a good deal of this is used for energy during respiration. Levels of malic acid at harvest are typically closer to 1 to 4 g/L. Tartaric acid is also metabolized during respiration, but at much lower levels than malic acid.

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#5: Tartaric acid is related to, but not (quite) the same thing as cream of tartar: Students of wine are sure to be familiar with the propensity of tartaric acid to form wine diamonds (particles that separate from the wine and look like tiny crystals of rock salt). Wine diamonds can form in the tank, during barrel aging, or in the bottle—particularly if the wine is subjected to cold temperatures. Tartrates can be prevented in the bottle via pre-bottling cold stabilization. Tartrate crystals scraped from the interior of oak barrels once inhabited by high-acid wines can be used to produce cream of tartar—a white powder that is often used as a stabilizing or leavening agent in cooking (particularly with egg whites, sugar work, or baking). Cream of tartar is basically partially-neutralized tartaric acid, produced by combining tartaric acid with potassium hydroxide. Cream of tartar, when used in baking, helps to activate baking soda, which is alkaline. As a matter of fact, cream of tartar combined with baking soda is the formula for baking powder.

References/for more information:

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas… missjane@prodigy.net

I’ve been Shattered

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As a good student of wine, I can tell you what shatter, aka coulure is. I can even quote (probably verbatim) the information on it from the CSW Study Guide—here goes!

“A malady known as coulure (“shatter” in English) can cause poor fruit set, with many flowers failing to become fully developed berries.”

Yep. That’s it—and that was about the extent of my knowledge until one night when I suddenly wanted to know more. So, a few textbooks, websites, and phone calls later, here is what I now know about coulure.

For starters, the word is pronounced “coo-LYUR.”

Put simply, coulure occurs when a large number of a vine’s grape blossoms stay closed, or for some other reason they fail to become fertilized. These failed flowers never get the chance to develop into grape berries but rather shrivel and fall off the vine.

In French, weather-induced coulure is referred to as coulure climatique, and the main culprit behind coulure is indeed the weather.

  • The uncooperative weather—when too cold, rainy, or wet (shatter is a bigger threat in areas with marginal climates)—slows down the plant’s rate of photosynthesis, which leads to carbohydrate deficiencies in the vine. This deficiency causes the vine to conserve its resources, and the energy that would go into ripening flowers and fruit is diverted elsewhere. The blossoms eventually shrivel and drop off, along with the small stems that attached the blossoms to the vine.
  • Excessively high temperatures during flowering and fruit set can cause coulure—again as a result of the shut down of photosynthesis—as the necessary enzymes lose their shape and functionality. In a prolonged heat event, coulure may be caused via excessive shoot-and-leaf growth as well as cellular respiration, either of which can lead to carbohydrate deficiencies.

Photo by Hvczech (Public Domain/via Wikimedia Commons)

Besides the weather, coulure can be caused by overly-fertile vineyard soils and excessive use of high-nitrogen fertilizers, both of which can lead to excessively vigorous vine growth that can drain a plant’s carbohydrate reserves. Another possible cause is overly vigorous pruning, which can fail to provide enough potential for the growth of amount of leaf grown necessary for photosynthesis. In addition, certain grapes, such as Grenache, Malbec, Merlot, and Muscat Ottonel are particularly prone to coulure.

Coulure is not always preventable, but some good practices to follow include:

  • Taking care not to over-prune and encouraging the vines to develop enough leaf coverage to provide for adequate photosynthesis.
  • Tip-trimming (snipping the tips of developing shoots) near the end of the flowering period can help prevent carbohydrate deficiencies.
  • In some places, performing winter pruning late in the season may reduce the risk of coulure by delaying bud break which in turn increases the probably for warmer weather at flowering.

Hopefully, all this chitter-chatter has cleared up a bit about shatter (sha ooobie shatter)!

References/for more information:

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas… missjane@prodigy.net

Grape Invaders: Caladoc, Rosé du Var, and Couston

Photo of Caladoc by Vbecart, via Wikimedia Commons

A few weeks ago (on November 15 and 16, 2017),  France’s National Committee of Appellations of Origin (INAO) relating to wine and spirits held a meeting. In addition to discussing the yields and conditions of the 2017 harvest, the committee approved a few requests for experimentation within the scope of some existing AOCs.

A few of these were quite interesting. For instance, the Blanquette de Limoux AOC is going to test machine harvesting, and the three AOCs of Chablis (Chablis AOC, Chablis Grand Cru AOC, and Petite Chablis AOC) are going to test the use of anti-hail netting.

However, what really caught my eye was the approval of some experimental plantings in two AOCs. Two experimental grapes— Caladoc and Rosé du Var—were approved for testing in the Côtes de Provence AOC. Caladoc was also approved as a test subject in the Côtes du Rhône AOC, as was Couston. I am not too familiar with any of these grapes, so now seems like a good time to do some research on these grapes. Here’s what I found out:

Caladoc: Caladoc is a red-skinned grape, created as a Grenache X Malbec cross by Paul Truel while working in Montpellier in the 1950s. The goal, which was achieved, was to create a variety resistant to coulure (shatter). The grape produces red wines that are deeply colored, full-bodied, and tannic, but it is most often used in fruity rosés.

Caladoc is currently planted to more than 6,000 acres (2,420 ha) in France and is used in Vin de France and Vin de Pays, but it is not approved for any AOC-level wines. However…the grape is quite respected in Portugal, and allowed for use in at least seven DOCs, including Arruda, Alenquer, Torres Vedras, Óbidos, Do Tejo, Beira Interior, and Encostas d’Aire. The grape has also made its way to Spain, Argentina, Lebanon, and Brazil.

Rosé du Var: Rosé du Var is a pink-skinned grape variety native to the Var département of Provence—an area also famous for Fréjus Cathedral, Bandol, and the beaches of Saint-Tropez. The grape also goes by the name Roussanne du Var—but (confusingly, but not surprisingly) it is not related to the Roussanne of the Rhône. The parentage of Rosé du Var has not been confirmed, but it is believed to be one of the many offspring of Gouais Blanc.

Rosé du Var grapes form big bunches and big berries, and can be vinified into white or rosé styles of wine—neither of which tend to be very flavorful. It is perhaps for this reason that the grape variety is not currently approved for use in any of the AOC wines of France, although you will find it used in both blends and varietal wines in Vins de France and IGP/Vins de Pays (particularly in Provence and other areas in southern France).

Photo of Couston by Vbecart, via Wikimedia Commons

Couston: This grape appears to be quite an obscurity (it didn’t even show up in the wine grape tome-of-tomes, Wine Grapes [see below]). I did find a few websites with a bit of information, and it does appear in the Catalog of French Wine Grapes. From these few references, I was able to find out that Couston appears to be a natural crossing, discovered by one Mr. Julien Couston, in the 1970s. The grape is believed to be the offspring of Grenache and Aubun Noir (a red variety native to the Northern Rhône). Couston is a vigorous vine known to produce grapes capable of creating full-bodied, full-flavored, and tannic red wines with rich cherry-like aromas.

It is anticipated—but by no means assured—that the INAO will sometime in the future approve these grapes for limited use in the above-mentioned AOCs of France. In all likelihood, if they are approved, they will be limited to a certain percentage (10% to 20%, for instance) of the final blend. We’ll have to wait and see what happens!

References/for more information:

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas… missjane@prodigy.net