Mind your Latitude: 44° North

We’ve looked at wine through the lens of grapes, places, soils, barrels, bottles, and stems…and for the next few weeks we’re taking a look at latitude. Today, we present: 44 degrees North!

(The city of) Bordeaux: Bordeaux—the land of first growths, world-famous reds, snappy whites, and luscious dessert wines—radiates out from the city of Bordeaux, itself located on the left bank of the Garonne River about 28 miles/45 km inland from the Atlantic Coast.  The maritime influence is pulled inland via the Gironde Estuary, but blocked a bit by the Landes Forest…making for an overall cool/temperate climate. It is just warm enough to get the grapes—which include Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon Blanc and several other varieties—ripened, yet cool enough to create a long, slow road to ripening…and edgy enough to create a distinct vintage variation in its wines.

Bucharest: Bucharest—Romania’s capital and largest city—is located within the country’s Muntenia-Oltenia wine region.  So, after you visit the Palatul Parlamentului and have a snack at Caru’ cu Bere (the city’s oldest beer hall—opened in 1879), jump in your car and head out. Most of the wineries will be located north of the city, in the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains. The Deaulu Mare DOC should be your first stop. Deaulu Mare, considered to be one of the most promising wine regions in the country, produces a range of wines but specializes in reds such as those made from Fetească Neagră, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Pinot Noir.

Cornas: The Cornas AOC, situated in the Northern Rhône on the western bank of the famous river, is approved for the production of red wines made using 100% Syrah.  Located about 120 miles/195 km from the Mediterranean Coast, Cornas is fairly landlocked and—along with the rest of the Northern Rhône—experiences a mainly continent climate. In Cornas, the finest vineyards are planted on steep, granite slopes that capture the long days of sunshine and help to create ripe, robust grapes that in turn are used to craft rustic, powerful, intensely flavorful wine.

Eugene, Oregon: The city of Eugene is tucked into the southern portion of Oregon’s famed Willamette Valley AVA, just about where the McKenzie River flows into the namesake Willamette. In the city’s Market District you can visit the Oregon Wine Lab to taste wine, take a yoga class, and learn to dance the bachata. On the outskirts of town, you’ll find a plethora of impressive wineries, including Benton Lane, Silvan Ridge, and King Estate. As befits the hallowed ground, these wineries are creating some of the finest Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris, and Chardonnay on the planet.

Pignoletto DOC: The Pignoletto DOC, surrounding the city of Bologna in Italy’s Emilia-Romagna region, produces white wines based on the Grechetto Gentile grape variety.  Pignoletto DOC is produced in a range of styles—from dry-and-still to frizzante, sparkling, and sweet (late harvest or Passito). Until 2015, Pignoletto was the name of a grape (a synonym for Grechetto Gentile), a frazione (a village located in Emilia-Romagna), and a wine: Colli Bolognesi Classico Pignoletto DOCG. However, as of the 2015 vintage, it was decided that the term Pignoletto warrants protection as the name of a specific place, and that anyone growing the grape outside of the defined Pignoletto region is not entitled to use the name Pignoletto and should use the name “Grechetto Gentile” instead. Amidst all the ruckus, the Colli Bolognesi Classico Pignoletto DOCG had its name changed to Colli Bolognesi Pignoletto DOCG, and a new DOC—Pignoletto DOC—was born.

Pula, Croatia: Pula, a seafront city on the tip of Croatia’s Istrian Peninsula, is known for having some of the best-preserved Roman ruins outside of Italy. The Istrian Peninsula is also known for a wine producing region, Hrvatska Istra (Croatian Istria) PDO—which is part of the larger Primorska Hrvatska (Coastal Croatia) region. The specialty grape of the region, Malvazija Istarska—known in Italy as Malvasia Istriana or Malvasia del Curso—is believed to be an Istrian native, yet still a part of the extended Malvasia family. Malvasija Istarska is often used in this area to produce a varietal wine—sometimes dry, sometimes sweet. The finest versions are typically crisp and zesty with aromas of fruit (green apple, apricot, lime), flowers, sweet spices, and honey.

Sevastopol, Crimea: Sevastopol, located on the southwestern edge of the Crimean Peninsula, is the largest city in Crimean and an important Black Sea port. The area has a rocky coastline, cool winters, warm-to-hot summers, three main rivers (the Belbek, Chorna, and the Kacha) and an abundance of mountains (including a portion of the Balaklava Highlands). Not surprisingly, it also has something of a wine industry—with quite a history. In the 1800’s, Count Mikhail Vorontsov (1782—1856) imported vines from France and Spain and established vineyards throughout the region. Soon thereafter (in 1878), Prince Lev Sergeievitch Golitsyn—a highly educated member of a royal Family—established a winery in Crimea and began producing award-winning sparkling wines. The winery, Novy Svet, is still in production. A wide range of grape varieties—including international varieties (Muscat, Pinot Gris, Malbec) as well as those typically associated with eastern Europe (Saperavi, Rkatsiteli) are grown in the region.

Tip of the Mitt AVA: Michigan’s Tip of the Mitt is an AVA (approved in August of 2016) is located on the northern tip of Michigan’s Lower Peninsula—an area often (aptly) described as being shaped like a mitten.  Surrounded by water on three sides—Lake Huron to the east, Lake Michigan to the west, and the Straits of Mackinac to the north—the area’s cold-in-winter continental climate is somewhat assuaged by the summer warmth held in place well into the fall by the thermal mass of the huge lakes. Nevertheless, the region runs the risk of cold-weather calamities such as spring frost and winterkill, so the majority of the vineyards are planted to cold-hardy hybrids such as Frontenac Gris, Marquette and La Crescent.

References/for more information:

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas… missjane@prodigy.net

Click here for more information on our “Mind your Latitude” series

Mind your Latitude: 42° North

We’ve looked at wine through the lens of grapes, places, soils, barrels, bottles, and stems…and for the next few weeks we’re taking a look at latitude. Today, we present: 42 degrees North!

Applegate Valley: The Applegate Valley AVA is—along with the Rogue Valley AVA—one of the southernmost AVAs in the state of Oregon. (Technically speaking, the Applegate Valley AVA is a sub-region of the larger, surrounding Rogue Valley AVA.) The Applegate Valley AVA is named for the Applegate River. The source of the Applegate River is located in the Siskiyou Mountains of northern California; from there it flows northeast (then northwest) for about 51 miles (82 km) until it joins the Rogue River for its final journey to the Pacific. The Applegate Valley is slightly further south (and a bit warmer and drier) than much of Oregon’s wine country and is quite well-suited to Bordeaux and Rhône varieties including Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah—although Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, and Tempranillo are found here as well. 

Cayuga Lake: The Cayuga Lake AVA extends for over 40 miles (65 km) along either side of Cayuga Lake (the longest of New York’s Finger Lakes). The vineyards of the area—which became an AVA in 1988—benefit from three natural features of the region: the temperature-moderating effects of the lake itself, the steep hillsides poised to catch the morning sun, and the heat-retaining, finely-grained shale soils. The Cayuga Lake AVA is particularly well-known for Riesling produced in a particular mineral-and-fruity flavor style, as well as Cabernet Franc, Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer, and Pinot Gris. The Cayuga Lake AVA is a sub-region of the New York’s Finger Lakes AVA. 

Fennville AVA: The Fennville AVA, located along the shores of Lake Michigan, was the first AVA approved in the state of Michigan (back in 1981). The tiny Fennville AVA is completely surrounded by the larger Lake Michigan Shore AVA. Between the two of them, the Fennville and Lake Michigan Shore AVA grow over 40% of Michigan’s grapes. The Fennville AVA grows vinifera grapes—primarily those that can thrive in cool climates such as Riesling, Pinot Gris, and Chardonnay—as well as cold-hardy hybrids such as Traminette, Vignoles and Chardonel. 

Hokkaido: Hokkaido, a large island located in the northern section of Japan, was awarded a GI (geographical indication) for wine—Japan’s second—in October of 2018. The wine industry in this area has grown exponentially as of late—in 2000 there were only eight wineries to be found here; today the number is closer to 40. Hokkaido GI wines are produced using Koshu, Muscat Bailey-A, and several other grapes—including Pinot Blanc, Bacchus, Gewürztraminer, and Pinot Noir.

Orvieto: Orvieto DOC—a crisp white based on Trebbiano Toscano (known here as Procanico) and Grechetto grapes—is one of the best-known wines of Umbria. Umbria is a land-locked region located in the rugged Apennines between Marches and Tuscany. Grapes used in the production of Orvieto take up nearly 80% of Umbria’s vineyard area, with many vines planted in the valley of the Paglia River as it flows from Mount Amiata towards the Tiber. Orvieto is typically a dry wine, but semi-sweet and sweet styles are produced as well. 

Patrimonio: Located towards the northern end of the French island of Corsica, the vineyards of the Patrimonio AOC have a lovely view of the fishing boats (and pleasure yachts) in the Gulf of Saint-Florent. The area is blessed with limestone, chalk, and clay soils as well as the typical Mediterranean climate of mild winters followed by long, warm, dry summers. Red, white, and rosé wines are produced here, with the list of grape varieties showing the influence of both Italy (located just 75 miles/120 km away) and France. Red wines are typically based on Sangiovese (known here as Nielluccio) sometimes blended with splash of Grenache. The best-known white wine of the area is 100% Vermentino (Malvoisie de Corse).

Racha, Georgia: Racha is a small wine region—often discussed together with the equally small Lechkumi region (aka Racha-Lechkhumi)—located in the northern section of Georgia along the border with Russia. The region is known for its fertile soils and sunny climate that help to produce grapes very high in sugar content.  Semi-sweet red wines—particularly Khvanchakara (based on Alexandrouli and Mujuretuli grapes)—are a specialty of the area.

Rías Baixas: The Rías Baixas (“low estuaries”) DO occupies the northwest corner of Spain, bounded on two sides by the cold Atlantic Ocean and sharing its southern border with the Minho Region of Portugal. The Albariño-based wine produced in Rías Baixas might just be the highest-regarded white wine of Spain (forgive me Rueda and Valdeorras—rest assured we love you too).  While the Rías Baixas DO produces a range of wines (including small amounts of red and sparkling wines) from a list of grape varieties; white wine aficionados around the world crave the stone fruit, citrus, and white flower aromas of a 100% Albariño from the Rias Baixas DO. 

Rioja Alta: The Rioja Alta Zone, surrounding the town of Haro, is the westernmost (and according to many, the most important) sub-region of the Rioja DOCa. The majority of the zone lies south of the Ebro River. The Rioja Alta sits slightly lower than the Rioja Alavesa to the north, and slightly higher than Rioja Oriental (formerly the Rioja Baja) located to the east. The Rioja Alta is known for its reddish, alluvial soils rich in limestone, clay and iron. Tempranillo is the superstar grape here, renowned for the complexity and structure it lends to the wines of the region along with its blending partners including Garnacha, Mazuelo, and Graciano.   

Valley of the Roses, Bulgaria: Bulgaria’s Valley of the Roses wine region is located just to the south of the east-west running Balkan Mountains, in the region (and wine region) known as the Thracian Lowlands (or Thracian Valley). The Valley of the Roses is primarily known for its flower industry focusing on Damask roses—many of which are used to produce rose oil for use in perfumes and cosmetics all over the world. The Valley of the Roses is also an emerging wine region focusing mainly on white wines produced from Muscat, Muscatel, Riesling, Rkatsiteli, and the pink-skinned Misket Cherven.

References/for more information:

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas… missjane@prodigy.net

Click here for more information on our “Mind your Latitude” series

Mind your Latitude: 40º North

We’ve looked at wine through the lens of grapes, places, soils, barrels, bottles, and stems…and for the next few weeks we’re taking a look at latitude. Today, we present: 40 degrees North!

Bairrada DOC: The Bairrada DOC is located in north/central Portugal, just inland from the Atlantic coast. The area grows a range of grapes and produces red, white, rosé, and sparkling wine. White wines are typically based on the Fernão Pires (Maria Gomes) grape, but may be produced from several other varieties as well, including Arinto (Pedernã), Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc, Rabo de Ovelha, and Verdelho.  Reds are produced using a minimum of 50% Baga. The Baga grape variety is well-known for its powerful tannin, great structure, dark color, and complex cherry-berry-plum-tobacco-coffee flavors. Some of Portugal’s best Baga-based red wines are produced in the Bairrada DOC.

Chengde, Hebei: Hebei is a province in eastern China, located on the Bohai Sea coast and surrounding the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin. Hebei, whose name translates to “north of the river” is located north of the Yellow River. It is estimated that Hebei, together with its neighbor Tianjin, has over 50 wineries and over half of China’s total wine production. In the area’s vineyards, Cabernet Sauvignon is the leading grape variety, followed by Chardonnay, Merlot, and Marselan. The China Great Wall Wine Company (the country’s largest producer, in terms of volume) and the Sino-French Demonstration Vineyard (Domaine Franco Chinois) are both located here.

Humboldt County, CA: Humboldt County—best known for Redwood National Park and the tallest trees on earth—occupies part of the northernmost reaches of California.  Viticulture is sparse—there are perhaps 60 acres currently planted to vine in all of Humboldt County—and yet a range of cool-climate grapes are grown here, including Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Syrah, and Merlot.  The tiny Willow Creek AVA, one of the few to be found in the area, lies in the valley of the Trinity River surrounded by the rugged Klamath Mountains. The influence of the river makes the AVA slightly warmer than the surrounding areas. PS: The Willow Creek AVA of Humboldt County should not be confused with the Paso Robles Willow Creek District AVA (located 500 miles to the south).

Madrid: The Community of Madrid—located somewhat in the center of the country—is one of the autonomous communities of Spain. The city of Madrid—the capital city of Spain, full of world class art museums (the Prado, the Thyssen-Bornemisza, the Reina Sofía), historic squares (Plaza Mayor) and amazing parks (El Retiro)—lies within its borders. However, in the context of wine, we’re going to focus on the autonomía of Madrid and its very own DO wine region:  Vinos de Madrid DO.  Red, white, rosé, and sparkling wines are produced in the Vinos de Madrid DO, using a range of grapes including Viura, Torrontés, Parellada, Tinto Fino (Tempranillo), Garnacha Tinta, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Syrah. The Vinos de Madrid DO is also approved for “sobremadre” wines produced via an extended maceration (up to 180 days) on the madre—that is, the grape skins and stalks. During this time period, the madre slowly sinks to the bottom of the vessel and lends a gentle clarification to the wine. Both red and white (orange) wines are produced via this process.

Marmara, Turkey: Turkey’s Marmara wine region (also known as the Thracian region) is situated in the north of the country, bordering the Marmara Sea (as well as the Black Sea and the Aegean).  The region can be quite humid, to say the least: it averages 73% humidity. The region typically has mild winters and warm summers, showing characteristics of both maritime and Mediterranean climates. A range of grapes are grown in the area, including international varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, and Viognier. Native Turkish grapes such as Adakarası, Kalecik Karası, and Papazkarası are also planted. The region produces about 13.6% of the country’s wine.

Sardinia: Located about 150 miles (240km) off the west coast of Italy, Sardinia is one of the largest islands in the  Mediterranean Sea (second only to Sicily). Despite the fact that just a small portion of the island’s 9,300 square miles are dedicated to viticulture, a wide range of grape varieties are grown on Sardinia. These include including native Italian varieties (such as Monica, Torbato, and Nasco), French varieties (such as Cabernet Sauvignon), and those believed to be native to Spain (including Grenache and Carignan). Grenache is a bit of a local hero—starring in the well-known Cannonau di Sardegna DOC—as is Vermentino, which is made into several wines, including Vermentino di Gallura (the island’s only DOCG wine).

Slopes of Meliton PDO: TheSlopes of Meliton PDO is located on the Greek mainland in the region known as Halkidiki (Chaikidki). Haikidiki is often described as resembling “a hand with three fingers.” Vineyards of the Slopes of Meltion PDO are planted in terraces up Mount Meliton, starting at elevations of 328 feet (100 m) and continuing up as high as 1,150 feet (350 m).  A range of grapes, including both Greek and international varieties are planted here. The main wines produced under the rules of the PDO include dry whites (based on Athiri, Roditis, and Assyryiko) and dry reds produced with a minimum of 70% Limnio (often blended with Cabernet Sauvignon and/or Cabernet Franc). Domaine Porto Carras is the main producer.

Taurasi DOCG: Located in Italy’s Campania region about 30 miles inland from the city of Naples, the area around Taurasi has been known for its wine for a long time…since 800 BCE, according to some. These days, this ancient region is enjoying a newly-found popularity, thanks in large part to the efforts of Antonio Mastroberardino and his truly legendary 1968 vintage. Taurasi earned its DOCG status in 1993 and according to these standards it must be made using a minimum of 85% Aglianico. Taurasi tends to be a highly tannic red wine that comes into its own with a few years of age (perhaps 8 at least). Those that have the patience (and the cellar space) will be rewarded with a well-structured, complex wine with floral-fruity-flavors of sour cherry, raspberry, dried plum, dried herbs, licorice, and spice.

Warren Hills AVA: New Jersey might not be famous for wine production, but early American colonists successfully planted grapes and made wine here as early as 1767. These days, New Jersey boasts just over 50 bonded wineries and more than 1,500 acres (607 ha) of vineyards. The state contains four AVAs (one of these—Central Delaware Valley—is shared with Pennsylvania). The Warren Hills AVA, located in the rolling hills of the New York-New Jersey Highlands  is found in the northwest of the state, about 50 miles (80 km)  inland from Raritan Bay. The Warren Hills AVA currently has five wineries and just over 100 acres (40 ha) of vines. Many of the grapes grown here are cold hardy hybrids such as Vidal, Chambourcin, and Catawba; vinifera grapes including Cabernet Franc, Gewürztraminer, and Pinot Noir are grown as well—planted betwixt and between the area’s dairy farms and apple orchards.

Click here for our post: Mind your Latitude – 38º North

References/for more information:

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas… missjane@prodigy.net

Click here for more information on our “Mind your Latitude” series

Mind your Latitude: 38° North

There are so many ways to look at and study wine…region, grape, wine-making techniques…even soil and farming methods. So…what about latitude? It’s worth a try!

Here’s a quick look at some of the wines and wine regions of the world that have very little in common…save for the fact that they all reside on the 38th parallel north…

Athens: Located on the southern part of the Greek mainland, Athens is considered part of the “Central Greece” wine region. This area is famous for being the home of Retsina, often made with the Savatiano grape variety (thought to be native to the region). There are no PDO regions in Central Greece, but the area does produce quite a bit of PGI-level wines from a range of grape varieties (from Cabernet Sauvignon to Assyrtiko and beyond).

Augusta, Missouri: Missouri might not seem like a wine hotspot to some, but the Augusta AVA was the first American Viticultural Area to be approved, back in June of 1980. Norton is the area’s “signature” grape variety, but the region also grows vinifera varieties (including Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, and Chardonnay) as well as cold-hardy hybrids such as Chambourcin, Chardonel, Seyval Blanc, and Vidal.

Cosenza, Calabria: The tiny town of Consenza in Calabria (the “tip of the toe” of the Italian “boot’) is surrounded by the DOC region of Terre di Consenza. Many styles of wine are produced in this region—from white to red as well as sparkling, fortified, passito (dried grape), and late harvest. Interesting grapes grown in the Terre de Consenza DOC include Gaglioppo (best known as the main red grape in the Cirò DOC), Mantonico Bianco, and Calabrese (aka Nero d’Avola).

Izmir, Turkey: The province of Izmir, located on the Aegean Sea in far west Turkey is—along with the provinces of Manisa and Denizli—part of Turkey’s Aegean Wine Region. A wide range of grapes are grown here—including international varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay as well as local grapes such as Çal Karası and Papaskara (both red). Approximately 52% of all Turkish wine is produced in the country’s Aegean Wine Region.

Jumilla, Spain: Located in the autonomía of Murcia on Spain’s eastern coast, Jumilla is one of three DOs in the region—the other two being Yecla and Bullas. The Jumilla DO and with its two side-kicks all produce a range of wines in various styles, but are primarily known for concentrated reds and flavorful rosés based on Monastrell (aka Mourvèdre).

Middleburg, Virginia: Centered around the town of the same name, the Middleburg AVA is located about 50 miles south of Washington DC. It is bordered on the north by the Potomac River and encircled by mountains to the east, west, and south. The area’s nearly-300 acres of vines are planted to Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, Sauvignon Blanc, and Sauvignon Gris (among others).

Miyagi Prefecture, Japan: Miyagi Prefecture comprises 14 cities and a number of towns and villages; of these the capital—Sendai—is the largest and best-known. Miyagi is located on Honshu—Japan’s largest and most populous island. Honshu is also home to the majority of Japan’s vineyards and wine production. The native grape, Koshu, is grown here, as well as a variety of other grapes including Muscat of Alexandria, and Muscat Bailey-A (a Japanese hybrid).

(The city of) Napa, California: The Napa Valley AVA hardly needs an introduction…however, to be specific about the 38th parallel, the city of Napa is somewhat surrounded by the Oak Knoll, Mount Veeder, and Los Carneros AVAs. The Sonoma Valley AVA is just to the west. That means that—depending on elevation and the proximity to San Pablo Bay—this spot could produce world-class wines from Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc…and a host of other grapes as well.

Ningxia, China: Located about 500 miles (805 km) west of Beijing, the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region is considered one of the most promising areas for viticulture and wine production in China. Due to its deep, finely-grained loess soils—the area is in large part an alluvial plain formed by the Yellow River— viticulture is encouraged here both for economic and ecological reasons, as the vines help prevent erosion.

Setúbal, Portugal: Setúbal is both a commune and a DOC wine region in southern Portugal. The area is located just across the Tagus (Tejo) River from the city of Lisbon, on Portugal’s Atlantic coast. The DOC is best known for its sweet licoroso (fortified) Moscatel de Setúbal—based on the Muscat of Alexandria grape.

Click here for our post: Mind your Latitude – 40º North

References/for more information:

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas… missjane@prodigy.net

Click here for more information on our “Mind your Latitude” series

Confusion Corner: Torrontés, Terrantez, Turruntés

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Torrontés, Terrantez, and Turruntés…the name of these three grape varieties look and sound so much alike that even the most well-read wine students among us might be tempted to assume they are all the same grape—each using some local or dialect-specific of the same name.

However, let me set the record straight: these sound-alike grapes are indeed three unique varieties, and I am going to try to untangle the confusion therein. For starters, here’s the super-quick version of what to remember:

  • Torrontés—Argentina
  • Terrantez—Madeira
  • Turruntés—Spain

And now for the long version:

Torrontés: Torrontés—a white wine grape that produces a lovely, aromatic, fruit- and floral-scented white wine, is considered to be one of the signature grapes of Argentina. However…it’s not quite that simple. There are three related-yet-distinct Torrontés grape varieties grown in Argentina: Torrontés Riojano (the most widely grown), Torrontés Mendocino, and Torrontés Sanjuanino. (The label on your wine bottle, however, will most likely read just “Torrontés.”)

At least two of the three (Mendocino and Sanjuanino) varieties have been confirmed as native to Argentina, and all three have been determined to be natural crosses of Muscat of Alexandria (Moscatel). The other parent grape is assumed to be Listan Prieto (otherwise known as Crilla Chica, or the Mission grape).  The name Torrontés has been used in Argentina since the mid-1860’s; and the various versions of Torrontés (combined) now make it one of the top white gapes of Argentina—in both viticultural acreage and reputation.

Terrantez: Depending on whom you ask, Terrantez is either a rising star, or a has-been white  grape of the Portuguese island of Madeira. According to Jancis Robinson, et al, in Winegrapes, there are currently just 5 acres (2 ha) of Terrantez on Madeira, and much of that is newly planted. We also know for certain that the grape used to be quite widespread on Madeira, and many older bottles (19th and 20th  century) of Madeira sold at auction even to this day are labeled as Terrantez. The grape does, however, tend to have extremely low yields (which certainly may have contributed to its downfall).

Despite its rarity, it is (according to many sources) possible to get varietally-labeled Terrantez Madeira (see one example here) in various tasting rooms and wineries on Madeira. If you get a chance to taste one, you’ll find a lovely, delicate wine with a sweetness level somewhere between those found in Sercial and Verdelho.

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Turruntés: It’s easy to see why this grape variety is often mistaken for Argentina’s Torrontés…but Turruntés is actually a synonym for Albillo Mayor—which is itself perhaps best-known for being used (in allowed-yet-small amounts) in the red wines of Ribera del Duero. Turruntés/Albillo Mayor is also approved for use in the white wines of the Rioja DOCa and the Cangas VCIG (in Asturias). The grapes are known to create pale yellow-green wines with fruity (green apple) and vegetal (green-grassy) aromas.

It’s natural low acidity makes Turruntés an ideal blending partner with Viura/Macabeo. There are currently about 3,500 acres/1,440 ha of Albillo Mayor/Turruntés planted in Spain.

References/for more information:

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas… missjane@prodigy.net

Un-study techniques: A Christmas Wine Quiz

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I know you probably don’t want to study tonight, but you also don’t want to lose your study rhythm! How about a nice compromise….just a short little quiz on wine for Christmas.

If you want to go for it, click here.

Happy Holidays to those that are celebrating, and best wishes to all!

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas… missjane@prodigy.net

Un-Study Techniques: Say it, Scream it, Sing it

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This is the fifth post in our series about “un-study techniques” for use in wine and spirits studies.  An un-study technique is something you can do to help you learn about wine—in those times and situations when you are tired, unmotivated, or just plain sick of studying. We’ve all been there.

If you just can’t stand to study….perhaps you won’t mind a bit of talking? Grab one page of notes or a short stack of flashcards—this is a great time to go straight for the information you can never seem to recall or understand. Just make sure to keep your material to a minimum so there’s no chance of overwhelming yourself.

Once you have your notes, read them out loud. When I do this I like to go all-in. Stand up straight, say it loud, say it proud, repeat it three times directly into the (fake) microphone. Then do it again. Say it, scream it, or sing it until you have it memorized. Then paraphrase it and say it again. Keep going. Repeat it ten times. Do it with a glass of wine or a shot of Bourbon and it gets fun and silly…and it’s very, very effective.

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Here’s why:

There’s something called the “production effect” that is discussed amongst those who study memory science. To put it simply, the production effect related to the fact that a person will remember something that they said (even if it is a random string of words or sounds) more than something that they read (silently) or something they heard someone else say.

I am inclined to think that this is likely to do with the fact that we like to hear ourselves talk (ahem), but the experts will tell us it is more than that—and the stats to prove it are impressive. In a study reported by Psychology Today (as provided by Dr. W. R. Klemm) students who read a list of 160 items silently were able to recognize about 64% of them two weeks later…and the students who read them aloud were able to recall 77%. That’s worth speaking up for.

One explanation for the production effect is distinctiveness—something that is read, spoken, and heard is more distinctive (and therefore more memorable) than words that are “just” read silently. The literature describes this as such: “the additional dimensions of encoding for items read aloud can be subsequently used during retrieval” (Icht, Mama, and Algom, 2014). In other words, it helps remember.

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Another is that it involves more senses (hearing and seeing) as well as motor activities (speaking). Let’s face it, we are seldom as actively engaged as we are when we are talking. This fits in with the meaning of “production” – in the sense that you “produce something” when you use information rather than just reading it or hearing it. While it might be nice if the “production” created was a cupcake rather than a sound, a sound will do for purposes of your hungry-for-wine-knowledge long-term memory.

So, the next time a day (or night) rolls around and you “just can’t stand to study,” well, don’t study. Instead, grab a small section of your notes, and talk it out.

Here are some links if you’d like to learn more about our series on Un-study Techniques:

References/for more information on the production effect:

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas… missjane@prodigy.net