Bergamot: Vermouth, Rosolio, and Crème Liqueur

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A while back I posted an article about Bergamot—a citrus fruit begat of a lemon and a bitter orange, best-known for its intensely fruity-floral aroma and its use in Earl Grey tea. In this post, the story of Bergamot is continued as I discuss its not-too-common but always-welcome use in aromatized wines and flavored spirits…all of them delicious!

Vermouth—Vermouth is an aromatized wine flavored with the Artemisia (wormwood) herb, and most versions contain dozens of other botanical flavorings as well—often including cloves, cinnamon, quinine, citrus peel, cardamom, marjoram, chamomile, coriander, juniper berries, and ginger—but only rarely including bergamot. I researched dozens of vermouth websites, and while I found quite a few that admitted to the use of citrus fruit and citrus peels (particularly bitter oranges or Seville oranges), I only located a few that featured bergamot in their (publicized) formulas. Among these were Contratto Vermouth Bianco and Cocchi Savoy Dry Vermouth.

Contratto Vermouth Bianco discloses 28 of its 50 botanical ingredients—one of which is “bergamot orange”—the other 22 remain a secret. Its flavor is bright and balanced, just very-slightly bitter, with lots of green herb flavors and a citrus zing. I highly recommend its use in a 20th Century Cocktail (link via the Skurnik website).

And then there’s the Cocchi Savoy Dry Vermouth. Cocchi (along with Contratto) is one of the original brands of Italian Vermouth, and the company makes a wide range of wines, spirits, and aromatized wines—including an impressive range of vermouth and vermouth-related products. The Cocchi Savoy Dry Vermouth is a bit special—and not just because it is the only product that I could find on the website with a claim-to-bergamot-fame. This is a special-edition product; previously only available at the Savoy Hotel in London (these days, it’s also available for purchase online but with a “limited availability” advisory). This vermouth was crafted according to a recipe from the 1970’s and formulated specifically for use in the Savoy Hotel’s Dry Martini recipe. On its own, it has a unique herbal-and-citrus flavor. As for the martini, it’s a pretty specific recipe—and it might be worth the trip to London.

Old-fashioned Bergamot Liqueur—Briottet Crème de Bergamote: Liqueurs and cordials flavored with bergamot (fruit, peels, and/or oils) were popular in Italy and France during the 1800s, but few such products are produced today. As a matter of fact, you would be hard-pressed to even find mention of one in a modern liquor store or food-wine-and-spirits publication. However…Maison Briottet, a family-owned business founded in 1836 in the French city of Dijon, has kept bergamot spirits alive for the last hundred-or-so-years with a recipe for Crème de Bergamote. The firm, perhaps best-known for their Crème de Cassis de Dijon, produces a wide range of brandies, spirits, and liqueurs. The current managing directors, Vincent and Claire (representing the sixth generation), are also committed to the production of the bergamot liqueur beloved by Edmond Briottet, their great-great-grandfather.

According to the company website, Briottet Crème de Bergamote is flavored using just the zest of the bergamot fruit. This lends a “fresh somewhat lemony taste” that is also somewhat spicy and smooth. They recommend drinking it after dinner over ice, and suggest that it also makes an excellent flavoring for cakes, cookies, and other desserts.

Apparently, homemade bergamot liqueur is also a thing, and it is quite easy to find a do-it-yourself recipe online (I particularly liked this one, via the “Grow the Planet” blog).

The New Liqueur-on-the-Block—Italicus Rosolio di BergamottoItalicus is a fairly new product, launched by Giuseppe Gallo—a mixologist and all-things-spirits expert based in Italy—in 2016. However, the concept is old; and harkens back to a 15th Century Italian aperitivo flavored with rose petals known as rosolio. Rosolio was once very popular with the Royal House of Savoy, and produced all over Italy. However, with the passing of the generations (along with the rise and fall of nations), rosolio fell out of favor as vermouth and other types of bitters and amari grew in popularity. When crafting his Italicus liqueur, Gallo used the rosolio liqueurs of the past as his inspiration, but chose to make a less-sweet, more-complex beverage using bergamot and other flavorings.

The production of this amazing liqueur includes a step traditionally known as sfumatura, a slow process used to extract essential oils from citrus peels. The oil of bergamot is then macerated in Italian neutral spirits along with chamomile, yellow roses, cedro lemon (citron), gentian root, lavender, and other botanicals.

To my taste, Italicus falls somewhere on the liqueur-style-scale between the sweet-floral-cotton candy-yumminess of Saint Germain and the bracing-yet-delicious experience of a crisp, white vermouth. If I had to describe it I would start by saying that is has aromas of citrus (but is it lemon or lime), roses (both fresh and dry), fresh green herbs, and lavender. This is followed by crisp, refreshing flavors of ripe citrus (lemon and lime again, but also bitter orange)—bitter but balanced, and finally a clean, floral-scented, and lingering finish.

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This liqueur is amazing on its own (over ice with a lemon twist) and is equally appealing in a simple spritz (with Prosecco or Champagne) or a Negroni Bianco (an amazing-sounding cocktail made with Italicus, gin, and dry vermouth). I also invented my own martini-like drink aligned to my personal liquor cabinet and taste involving a 2:1 combo of Potocki Polish Vodka and Italicus, shaken, strained, and served up with a twist of lemon (I’m still working on the name…maybe I’ll call it a Bergamartini or a Martinicus).

And then there’s this: I’m very impressed with Square One Organic Bergamot-flavored vodka. I’ll just let the creators of this heavenly spirit tell you all about it.

References/for more information:

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas… missjane@prodigy.net

 

Bergamot, Beverages, and Sweet Delights

Bergamot oranges

If you are a fan of Earl Grey Tea, the candy/confection known as Turkish Delight,or any number of dry, white vermouths…you might be a fan of Bergamot Oil. Bergamot oil is derived from the rind of Citrus bergamia fruit, otherwise known as bergamot, or the bergamot orange.

It is believed that bergamot is a hybrid of a type of lemon crossed with the bitter (Seville) orange. The resulting fruit may have been named after the city of Bergamo in Lombardy (Italy), where it was historically sold. Another theory states that it was named after the Turkish words bey armudu (“prince’s pear) or bey armut (“prince of pears”). The fruit itself has greenish-yellowish skin (depending on ripeness) and bitter pulp that also appears as a mix of yellow and green. The plant itself is an evergreen tree that can reach a height of about 10 to 12 feet (3 to 4 m) with dark, fleshy leaves. It blooms with highly aromatic, white flowers in the spring.

Calabria highlighted in the map of Italy

Calabria—the province of Reggio di Calabria to be precise—is the leading area for the production of oil of bergamot. The area, located on the very tip of the toe of Italy’s “boot,” grows 90% of all the bergamot oranges in the world, and the region has protected geographical indication status for its bergamot oil: Bergamotto di Reggio Calabria – olio essenziale PGI. These days, bergamot is also grown in France, Argentina, Morocco, Turkey, Brazil, and parts of Africa.

The aroma of Bergamot oil is often described using the following terms: lemony, citrus, grapefruit, floral, or spicy (nutmeg-cinnamon-anise). The flavor of the fruit itself is described as citric and acidic (but not quite as sour as a lemon), and bitter (somewhere between a grapefruit and a lime).

Earl Grey tea, as it has been known since the 1830s, was originally a type of black tea flavored with bergamot oil. (These days, there are versions made with many types of tea including green tea, oolong tea, and an herbal variation based on Rooibos). The name of the tea goes back to Charles Grey—the second Earl Grey, also known as Viscount Howick—who served as the Prime Minister of the UK from 1830 to 1834.

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The flavored tea, gifted to the Earl, was supposedly created specifically to meld with the water of the area. It became wildly popular—Lady Grey loved to serve it at social and political gatherings—and has been produced in various incarnations ever since.

Earl Grey tea has made its way into a number of drinks and cocktails (both alcoholic and non-alcoholic) over the years. One long-lost (but not quite forgotten) tradition is known as a Moseley Tea Service (named after a suburb of South Birmingham). When your order a Moseley Tea Service, you get a drink made with a cup of Earl Grey tea (prepared however you like it) fortified a shot (or two) of gin.

A more recent innovation—a drink known variously as the London Fog, Manchester Fog, or Earl Grey Tea Latte—was invented in the early 2000s in Vancouver, BC (and imitated all over the world these days). The drink is made using a very strong potion of Earl Grey tea (such as one tea bag to ½ cup of hot water steeped for two to four minutes), steamed milk, and vanilla syrup. (Beware of the commercial use of the term “London Fog” as there are quite a few trademarks and copyrights lingering about.)

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Bergamot is widely used in aromatized wines and liqueurs as a bittering and/or flavoring agent. Such products include Cocchi Dry Vermouth, Briottet Crème de Bergamot, and the new-liqueur-on-the-block, Italicus Rosolio di Bergamotto. These products are so interesting that they warrant their very own blog post.

Hard candy corner: The area around the French city of Nancy (in the Grand Est Region) produces a hard candy flavored with oil of Bergamot. These candies, which have PGI protection, are known as Bergamotes de Nancy PGI.

In addition to its culinary uses, bergamot oil is also quite useful within the realms of herbal medicine and aromatherapy. According to the dō Terra website, it has “both calming and uplifting abilities” and can “dissipate anxious feelings while simultaneously providing cleansing and purifying benefits.” (But be careful…it can cause the skin to be ultra-sensitive to sunlight.) The plants themselves have highly fragrant roots that can act as an insect repellant.

Confusion corner: A flowering, aromatic herb formally known as Monarda didyma also goes by the name Bergamot (in addition to scarlet beebalm and Oswego tea). The aroma of Monarda didyma is said to be familiar to Citrus bergamia, but there is no familial link between the two species.

References/for more information:

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas… missjane@prodigy.net

 

Blast from the Past: Appellation d’Origine Réglementée par Decret

If you google-search images of old-timey French spirits such as eau-de-vie, various forms of Marc, and old bottles of Cognac, you are likely to come across the label term “Appellation d’Origine Réglementée par Decret.” I have always wondered about this term, but not quite enough to embark on a search for its true meaning. I assumed it was yet another archaic term used sometime and somewhere in the long and ever-evolving history wine and spirits. So be it.

Until…I started coming across the term used on contemporary bottles. For example, while trying to find a bottle of Marc de Bourgogne for sale in my area, I came across dozens of pictures of bottles labeled, as I would expect, with the term Appellation d’origine Contrôlée (AOC). However, I found an equal amount labeled with the term Appellation d’Origine Réglementée par Decret (AOR). Dozens of google-searches and late-night perusals of reference books later, I still was not quite sure what the Appellation d’Origine Réglementée par Decret stood for.

Lately, I have been able to—at least—put a dent in the mystery. Here’s the story, as well as I can tell it:

As we all know, the regulation of certain wines, foods, and spirits were written into the laws and regulations of France by the early 1900’s. According to a 146-page document published by the Comité National des Appellations d’Origine des Vins et Eaux-de-Vie (1946), by the 1940’s a slew of appellations were in effect, including a long list of wine regions that were classified as Appellation d’origine Contrôlée (AOC).

This same document confirms classified status for several dozen distilled spirits as Appellation d’Origine Réglementée par Decret (AOR)—“appellation regulated by decree.”  These spirits include Cognac, eight different versions of Calvados, several versions of Marc, and a long list of regional Eaux-de-vie.

According to another dug-up document—this one authored by the Commission Nationale des Boissons Spiritueuses and titled Abrogation des Appellations d’Origine réglementées et simples—by the early 2000’s, many of the AOR decrees had been repealed, and some had been replaced by AOCs.

However, many of the original AOR designations remain “on the books” and are still in use. These include (at last count) 27 versions of eaux-de-vie, Marc d’Auvergne, Marc de Lorraine, and Mirabelle de Lorraine.

The moral of this story is: you may indeed stumble across a bottle of French brandy that bears the label term AOR—don’t freak out…its not a typo, and its not a fake. It’s a piece of history.

References/for more information:

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas… missjane@prodigy.net

The Spirits of Burgundy: Marc de Bourgogne AOC

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Mention the word “Burgundy” to any wine lover and you will most likely be greeted by a dreamy gaze, a loving sigh, and a soliloquy on the joys of satiny Pinot Noir and refined Chardonnay.

It remains a solid truth the Burgundy produces some of the finest, swoon-worthy and fan-obsessed wines on the planet. No argument. However, on a recent trip through Burgundy I was lucky enough to come across some of the brandy, eaux-de-vie (including pear, Mirabelle, and raspberry), and liqueurs (made from currants, raspberries, cherries, and herbs) produced in the region. Many of these products are obscure and many are only available locally (le sigh); if you’d like to window shop, I suggest the website of Distillerie A. Méan.

Another thing I learned is that some of the Burgundy-based spirits are well-known and widely distributed—famous enough in their own right, despite the super-fame of their fermented grape cousins. One of these spirits is the unique pomace brandy of the region, Marc de Bourgogne AOC.

Burgundy is one of the three wine-producing regions of France (the other two are Alsace and Jura) that has earned AOC status for its pomace brandy, known as marc (in French, it rhymes with the English word “car”). As defined in the first line of the cahier des charges for Marc de Bourgogne, it is may also be referred to as an eau-de-vie (Eau-de-Vie Marc de Bourgogne).

Like any pomace brandy, Marc de Bourgogne is produced from the “leftovers” (grape skins, seeds, and stems) of wine production. Marc de Bourgogne may be made anywhere in the Burgundy region, from the remains of any of the grape varieties allowed to be grown in Burgundy (even the obscurities such as Aligoté, Sacy, César, and Tressot) that were previously used to produce wine with a Burgundy appellation. The marc is allowed to be distilled via copper pot stills or short-column copper stills. The spirit must come off the still at a maximum of 72% alcohol by volume.

One thing that makes Marc de Bourgogne unique is the aging requirement. Many of the world’s famous pomace brandies—including grappa—are bottled in unaged expressions, but Marc de Bourgogne must be aged for a minimum of two years in wood containers. Both new and unaged wood is used. As with many French brandies, there is also a list of allowed label designations based on additional age; these include the following:

  • Vieille: minimum 4 years
  • Très Vieille: minimum 6 years
  • Hors d’Âge: minimum 10 years

Marc de Bourgogne AOC must be bottled at a minimum of 40% alcohol by volume.

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According to the Cahier de Charges, about 200 wine growers/producers in Burgundy prepare pomace (marc) for distillation. Of these, about 50 produce their own brandy, while the others sell their pomace to larger distilleries—where it may be used in the production of eau-de-vie marc, liqueurs, or fortified wines. Of the dozen-or-so large distilleries currently working in Burgundy, four of them (at last count) still operate “mobile” distilleries that go from vineyard to vineyard producing spirits. Most of the stills in use are over 100 years old, having been passed down through generations of farmers and distillers.

Marc has been produced in Burgundy (as far as we know) since the 1600’s. The earliest known mention of the product is to be found in a memo (letter) sent to the Duke of Burgundy in 1698. In this letter, known as the Mémoire su l’état de sa généralité, the Duke is informed that the area produces on tire un assez bon grand produit d’une chose qui n’était bonne qu’à brûle—google translated as “a fairly good product is produced from a thing which was good only to burn.”

Suffice it to say that in the reputation of Marc de Bourgogne has since improved dramatically. Most experts will agree that the Marc produced in Burgundy is among the highest-quality in all of France. It seems that consumers agree, as some ultra-aged and high-quality expressions of Marc de Bourgogne can fetch prices as high as those seen for Cognac.

The aroma of well-aged versions of Marc de Bourgogne have been described in terms of freshly roasted almonds, honeysuckle, dried roses, raisins, maple, dried leaves, and oak; typical flavors include dried plum, smoke, raisin, and wood.

The AOC for Marc de Bourgogne was approved in 1942. Marc de Bourgogne is difficult, but not impossible, to find in North America.

References/for more information:

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas… missjane@prodigy.net

 

Mustard and Vine

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Winter can be a dull time to visit a vineyard, especially if you have visions of leafy canopies heavy with fruit dancing in your head. However, in many parts of the wine making world—including the well-trod regions of Napa, Sonoma, and Burgundy—winter brings its own measure of delight in the form of a waving sea of yellow-gold blossoms: the dance of the mustard flowers.

Mustard and wine share an affinity on many levels—there is the delight of grilled chicken in mustard cream sauce paired with a crisp Chardonnay, for example—and the flagship of all mustards (Dijon, of course) is made with wine. The plants themselves—the mustard flowers and the grapevines—get along famously as well.

The vine: When used as a cover crop between rows of vines, mustard plants can provide the benefits of any cover crop such as protecting the soil from erosion, improving the ability of water to penetrate the soil, attracting beneficial insects, and increasing the organic matter in the soil.

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Mustard plants have a few specific benefits as well. For one, they are very hardy—the seeds of the mustard plant can survive in the soil for up to 40 years, and spring to life after a late fall rain. Mustard plants also produce biofumigants (natural chemical agents) that suppress nematode (nasty little roundworm) populations. The plant also recycles and redistributes nitrogen in the soil, making it more accessible to the vines.

The mustard: About that famous mustard from Dijon…I was fascinated to learn that “Dijon Mustard” is not a legally protected name, nor an approved designation of origin. It seems that mustard from Dijon had been so widely used—and imitated, in the highest form of flattery—that by the time a geographical indication for Dijon was suggested (in 1937), it was determined that the term was being used for products made in Dijon as well as products made in the style of mustard made in Dijon. As such, the term had already entered into the lexicon as a generic term, and therefore there could be no protection for “Dijon Mustard.” This makes sense currently, as the last of the Dijon mustard manufacturers left the city of Dijon about ten years ago—and even then they were using some mustard seeds from Canada alongside those that were locally-grown.

However…there are plenty of mustard plants and lots of mustard production in the region of Burgundy surrounding the city of Dijon. There is even a Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) for Moutarde de Bourgogne (Burgundy Mustard). The PGI was granted in 2008, but the Brotherhood of the Moutardiers-Vinaigriers of Bourgogne (Héritière de la Confrérie des Moutardiers-Vinaigriers), originally founded in Dijon, dates back to 1600.

The following regulations are included in the documents of the Moutarde de Bourgogne PGI:

  • The mustard seeds must be grown, harvested, and stored within the boundaries of the Burgundy region (most of it is grown in the eastern part of the Côte-d’Or department, with additional plantings in the far north of the area [around Yonne])
  • Two specific species of mustard are allowed: Brassica juncea, and Brassica nigra
  • The wine used to produce the mustard must be a Chardonnay or Aligoté from a Burgundy or Beaujolais PDO
  • It is descried as (via Google translate) “a strong or extra-strong mustard with white wine, light yellow in color with a thick, homogeneous and unctuous texture. It is characterized by a strong and typical smell of Burgundy white wine, an intense spiciness and a pronounced taste of Burgundy white wine.”
  • In addition to mustard seeds and wine, the mustard may contain sugar and spices, but it is not allowed to contain artificial colorings, thickeners, or mustard extracts

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If you’d like to try the legendary Burgundy mustard and Burgundy white wine pairing for yourself, I suggest this delectable Mustard Roasted Chicken recipe from the Barefoot Contessa, which I would pair with a nice, casual white Burgundy such as a Saint-Véran, Pouilly-Fuissé, or white Beaujolais. I do recommend you sub-out the suggested Grey Poupon for an authentic Moutarde de Bourgogne (shhhh….don’t tell Ina).

References/for more information:

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas… missjane@prodigy.net

Wine Travel Bucket List: Piedmont Color

Brunate Chapel

Wine lovers that travel to Piedmont looking for the colors are typically chasing the deep, brooding red of a glass of Barolo, or perhaps the red-and-gold leaves of a vineyard in autumn. While these are certainly worth traveling for, Piedmont also has some unique—albeit tiny—architectural gems that scream with character and color, and should make for a good side trip in the midst of any serious wine tasting tour!

Barolo’s Brunate Chapel: The Chapel of the Madonna delle Grazie (often referred to as the Capella della Brunate [Brunate Chapel] or the Capella del Barolo [Barolo Chapel]) was built in 1914 as a shelter for vineyard workers in case of heavy rain or hail. The chapel was originally frescoed by Giovanni Savio (1863–1950), who hailed from the nearly town of La Morra.

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The chapel, which is located in Le Brunate—one of the most important crus of the Barolo DOCG—was purchased by the Ceretto family in the early 1970s, along with the 6 hectares of the surrounding vineyards. When it was purchased, the chapel was nearly in ruins, showing the signs of years of neglect.

In 1997, the Ceretto family approached David Tremlett, an acclaimed English artist with a reputation for installation art and site-specific works (in addition to painting and sculpture) with the idea of renovating the structure. Tremlett loved the idea and chose to collaborate with his friend Sol LeWitt on the project. Sol LeWitt (1928–2007) was an American artist well-known for wall drawings, large-scale installations and conceptualism. For the Brunate Chapel, Tremlett worked on the warm, serene interior and LeWitt created the lively, colorful exterior.

As is easy to imagine from the appealing colors and scale of the building, the Brunate Chapel is one of the most recognized and visited spots in Barolo.

Chiesetta di Coazzolo

Asti’s Chiesetta di Coazzolo: La Chiesetta della Beata Maria Vergine del Carmine, affectionately known as the Chiesetta (little church) of Coazzolo, is located in the Asti DOCG area.

Nearly 20 years after completing the renovations of the Brunate Chapel, David Tremlett returned to Piedmont to repaint and rejuvenate the little church using wall drawings and acrylic paints. The colors of the Chiesetta—which include sienna, yellow, and olive green—are more natural in style and subtle than the bright bursts that decorate the Brunate Chapel. The restoration of the Chiesetta is the result of a joint venture between London’s Genillard gallery and Silvano Stella, the owner of the Coazzolo Castle.

References/for more information:

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas… missjane@prodigy.net

Everybody in the (Pyrazine) Pool!

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Most wine students have heard of pyrazine—methoxypyrazine to be exact—as the chemical partially responsible for the “freshly cut green grass” aroma found in Sauvignon Blanc, as well as a range of other herbaceous aromas—from green bell pepper to gooseberries to asparagus—found in various wines including Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, and Carmenère.

Pyrazines are legendary. The legend has been repeated countless times, and it goes something like this: “The scent of pyrazine is so strong; it can be detected at concentrations equal to five drops in an Olympic-sized swimming pool.”

I’ve heard this so many times, I decided to check it out. After all, so many oft-repeated facts about wine turn out to be just oft-repeated myths, as I am sure you know!

For starters, according to Jancis Robinson, et al in The Oxford Companion to Wine (third edition), the sensory threshold for the strongest form of methoxyprazine is 215 ng/L in white wine. The ng refers to nanograms, which equate to one billionth of a gram.

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As it turns out, after a bit of rudimentary calculations,* the sensory threshold for pyrazines is not exactly five drops in an Olympic sized swimming pool, it is closer to 11 drops—still a legendary amount.

Which leads us back to where we started: this stuff is sturdy.

In reality, what we refer to as pyrazines in wine are technically nitrogen-containing (organic) aroma compounds produced as a secondary by-product of amino acid metabolism. There are three main types, as applies to wine: Isobutyl-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), Secbutyl-methoxypyrazine (SBMP), and Isopropyl- methoxypyrazine (IPMP). IPMP appears to be the most abundant of the three, and is most-often implicated in the “asparagus” range of aromas. IBMP—which accounts for the 215 ng/L threshold— appears to be the strongest and is often detected as green bell pepper or gooseberry aromas.

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Pyrazines are, for the most part, created in the vineyard. They are initially produced during the early stage of fruit set as a defense/survival mechanism for the baby grapes (a mouthful of raw herb flavor is perhaps none too delectable to baby goats and wild boars). The level of pyrazines in the grapes can run amuck in cases of excess water or overly-dense canopies—particularly if the baby grapes spend too much time in the shade.

I happen to love herbaceous character in my wines, so as far as I am concerned, “bring on the pyrazines”! However, most wine lovers prefer their wines to be balanced, as opposed to the green-meanie style of wine that I adore.

Luckily, Mother Nature has her own ways of controlling pyrazines. For one, the level of pyrazine in grape berries typically drops as grapes approach ripeness. For another, increased sun exposure will sort of “burn them off.” On the other hand, cloudy days, cool climates, dense canopies, over-watering, and less-than-ripe grapes are a pyrazine’s best friend.

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Everybody in the (pyrazine) pool!

.*If we do the math—which in this case is admittedly non-scientific and making use of generalizations such as standardized water volume vs. weight—it might go as such:

  • For starters, there are 2,500,000 liters (2.5 mega-liters [2.5 million liters]) of water in an Olympic size swimming pool.
  • If we multiply 215 nanograms times 2.5 million, we see that 215 X 2,500,000 = 537,500,000 nanograms, or 0.537 grams.
  • If one teaspoon of water equals 4.93 grams, then 0.537 grams = 0.11 of a teaspoon.
  • If we use a typical culinary calculation of 98 drops in a teaspoon, 0.11 of a teaspoon = 10.78 drops.
  • Conclusion: It’s not exactly five drops in an Olympic sized swimming pool, but at just shy of 11 drops, it is still a legendary amount.

References/for more information:

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas… missjane@prodigy.net