Wine Geo: The Allier

The Allier Department

There is a lot to love about the Allier: it’s a river…it’s a department…it’s the former Duchy of Bourbonnais!

It’s a department: The Allier is a department (political area similar to a county) situated smack-dab in the center of France, within the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region. Its namesake—the Allier Rive—flows through its center, while the Loire and Cher wind their way to the east and west. The main cites of the Allier Department include Moulins, Vichy, and Montluçon. Much of the Allier department is located on land that once-upon-a-time housed the Duchy of Bourbonnais, and inhabitants are sometimes referred to as Bourbonnais. In addition to over 500 castles, the Allier department is home to forests, ponds, woodlands, pastures, and vineyards. Notable products include Charroux Mustard, Charolais Beef, Tronçais Oak, and wine from the Saint-Pourçain AOC.

It’s a river (a left tributary of the Loire): The Allier River flows north for 262 miles/421 km from its source in the Massif Central to a point about 4 miles/6 km west of the city of Nevers, where it joins the Loire. The point where the Allier joins the Loire is about 26 miles/42 km south of Sancerre.

There are vineyards: The Allier River helps to define several of the wine regions of Central France, with the Saint-Pourçain AOC located right on the Allier River and completely within the Allier Department. The Côtes d’Auvergne AOC—located to the south of Saint-Pourçain in the Puy-de-Dôme Department—is also directly on the river. These two appellations are—quite literally—located very close to the geographic center of France and as such, are sometimes grouped together (with a few others) as the“appellations of Central France.”

For serious wine students only: the other appellations included in the “appellations of Central France” group include the Châteaumeillant, Côte Roannaise, and Côtes du Forez AOCs. Keep in mind that this is an informal grouping and there is no official appellation with a title referring to “Central France.”

There are forests and trees: Oak from the Tronçais Forest (Forêt de Tronçais)—located in the northwest quadrant of the Allier Department—is used to produce some of the most renowned oak barrels in the world. Interestingly, the Tronçais Forest is not part of the primeval (untouched) forest that once covered most of France but was planted in 1670 under the order of Jean Baptiste Colbert—a minister in the court of Louis XIV—to supply the French Navy. These days, the Tronçais Forest is considered one of the principal oak forests of Europe. The forest is largely planted to Sessile Oak (Quercus petraea). The ancient name for Sessile Oak was Tronce, from which the forest derives its name. Other trees in the Tronçais Forest include Scots Pine, Beech, Larch, and Common Oak (Quercus robur).

Sessile Oak trees thrive in high-density plantings, such as those found in the Tronçais Forest. In a high-density forest, the greater competition for water, sunlight, and nutrients causes the trees to grow slowly, with little space between the annual growth rings. This leads to oak (and oak barrels) with a tighter, smoother grain and a lighter transfer of oak-derived flavor to the wine.

References/for more information:

The Bubbly Professor is “Miss Jane” Nickles of Austin, Texas…

About bubblyprof
Wine Writer and Educator...a 20-year journey from Bristol Hotels to Le Cordon Bleu Schools and the Society of Wine Educators

2 Responses to Wine Geo: The Allier

  1. says:

    You make it sound so beautiful, I want to live there and taste some of the wines.  Mom

  2. Pingback: Five Fast Facts about Saint-Pourçain | The Bubbly Professor

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